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The cayenne pepper is named for the city of Cayenne in French Guiana, it is a cultivar of Capsicum annuum related to bell peppers, jalapeños, and others. The Capsicum genus is in the nightshade family (Solanaceae). The fruits are generally dried and ground, or pulped and baked into cakes, which are then ground and sifted to make the powdered spice known as cayenne pepper.
Cayenne is used in cooking spicy dishes, as a powder or in its whole form (such as in Sichuan cuisine) or in a thin, vinegar-based sauce. It is generally rated at 30,000 to 50,000 Scoville Units.
The cultivar, ‘NuMex Big Jim’ has smooth green foliage with small white flowers. The Pod color begins as green and matures into a rich red. Largest New Mexican Pepper. Pod is thick, pointed and measures up to 12 inches long by 2.5 inches wide. Mild taste. C. annuum is very diverse since it includes both hot and sweet peppers but common to most are smooth green leaves and strong branches. It is thought to have originated in Bolivia or Southern Brazil.
Bell pepper or sweet pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum (chili pepper). Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors, including red, yellow and orange. The fruit is also frequently consumed in its unripe form, when the fruit is still green.
Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as “sweet peppers”. Peppers are native to Mexico, Central America and northern South America. The colors can be green, red, yellow, orange and more rarely, white, rainbow (between stages of ripening) and purple, depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar.
Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red, yellow or orange peppers.
An Anaheim pepper is a mild variety of chili pepper. The name “Anaheim” derives from a farmer named Emilio Ortega who brought the seeds to the Anaheim, California area in the early 1900s.
They are also called California chili or Magdalena, and dried as chile seco del norte. The chile “heat” of Anaheims typically ranges from 500 to 2,500 on the Scoville scale however, many varieties grown in New Mexico can reach 4,500 to 5,000 Scoville units.
New Mexican cultivars were developed in the state by Dr. Fabian Garcia about 100 years ago. These cultivars are “hotter” than others in order to suit the tastes of New Mexicans in their traditional foods.